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老百姓下馆子千万别点四种菜 当心吃出慢性病

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发表于 2014/11/6 17:22:57| 收藏

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  生活条件变好了,下馆子逐渐成为百姓生活中的常事。不过美味背后,却藏着一些健康隐患,比如油、盐摄入往往超标,久而久之导致肥胖、高血压,还会诱发糖尿病、脑卒中,甚至是肿瘤。对此,美、英等国政府曾先后给老百姓提出外出就餐建议。我国居民也面临同样的问题,但缺乏相关的科学研究支撑。近日,中国疾病预防控制中心营养与食品安全所研究员王竹进行的《北京餐馆就餐者膳食营养消费调查》,披露了国内餐馆饭菜的营养状况。

  老下馆子吃出慢性病

  王竹告诉记者,本次研究共调查了2204名下馆子的消费者,涉及998种菜肴,其中包括主食167种、凉菜240种、炒菜557种、汤羹34种。调查结果显示,下馆子吃饭每人一餐摄入的脂肪和钠,超过全天推荐的摄入量,必须引起人们的重视。

  调查结果显示,人们外出就餐时主要存在三大问题。

  首先,油多盐多。中国营养学会建议每天食盐摄入量不宜超过6克(钠2200毫克),而下馆子的人一顿吃下去的钠就有2902毫克,一顿吃的量比推荐量一天还多。

  其次,畜禽肉类太多。我国居民膳食指南推荐,成人每日摄入畜禽肉类应控制在50~75克之间,而在外就餐一顿可平均吃进120克肉类,再加上水产50克以及蛋类,动物性食品摄入总量较高。

  第三,主食相对较少且过精。人们下馆子更加偏爱精细制作的点心和面食,使碳水化合物供能比偏低。专家提醒,如果长期这样吃,势必导致慢性病高发。

  1.主食:面条饺子最咸

  调查发现,面食类食品含盐量较高,普遍高于米食类。面条最咸,一小碗面条(50克)光是面条就含350毫克钠,加上调料含盐量更高。其他的高盐主食依次为饺子、家常饼、包子。而我们印象中觉得口感较咸的炒饭,含盐量反而排在后面。

  王竹建议,在外就餐时,尽量选做法简单的主食,比如白米饭、白馒头、蒸煮粗粮等。如果要喝粥,尽量少选带肉的粥,比如皮蛋瘦肉粥、艇仔粥,不妨多选红豆粥、绿豆粥、玉米粥等。

  2.凉菜:小凉菜也是重口味

  人们往往以为,清淡的凉菜可以起到开胃、调味、配合主菜的作用,但出人意料的是,这次调查发现,餐馆里的凉菜往往也是“重口味”。100克水产类凉菜(比如凉拌海蜇,咸鱼等)、酱肉等含钠量可达500毫克,之后依次为蛋类、肉类、菌藻类、豆制品类。凉拌蔬菜钠含量相对较低,为280毫克。

  王竹建议,酱肉、腌制小菜等凉菜含盐量很多,最好少吃。凉拌蔬菜类比较清淡,可以适当吃一些。建议点凉菜时选择生菜蘸酱的方式,尽量少吃盐。

  3.热菜:四种做法菜很咸

  烹制的热菜类菜肴是高盐含量的“重灾区”,炒、炖、煮、炸、煲等各类烹制方式,含盐量均不低。从菜品种类来看,鱼、肉类菜肴(包括肉汤)的钠含量平均在440毫克/100克以上,炒菜类在250毫克/100克左右,吃一盘(八寸盘)带肉的炒菜,钠摄入量就已远远超过推荐的一天摄入量。从菜系上讲,川菜往往高油高盐,比如水煮肉等,东北菜善炖,盐都加在了汤汁中。从烹调方法上看,砂锅类、干锅类、卤水类、豉香类菜肴常常比较咸。

  王竹建议,想要控制盐,不仅要控制咸味也要控制“鲜”味。因为很多鲜味调味料,比如盐、酱油,味精、鸡精等都是钠的主要来源,而控盐就是要控钠。点菜时不仅要注意荤素搭配、色彩搭配,也要注意烹制方式的搭配,尽量少吃高盐食品。最后,王竹呼吁消费者,主动要求餐馆要少放盐,全社会一起来呼吁和创造低盐就餐环境。餐馆也应逐步完善咸味分级,把菜肴的咸味分为不同等级,满足不同人群的需求。

  饥肠辘辘时来一盘热腾腾的盖浇饭成为很多人的选择,食用方便、饭菜结合、美味可口是大家对它的评价,但从营养和健康的角度来说,目前有不少盖浇饭存在油盐超标等问题,长期吃这类盖浇饭,可能会带来高血脂的风险。

  4.油盐较多的菜

  黑乎乎的酱油,同时泛着亮亮的油花,满目皆是。固然这种盖浇饭吃得香,开胃下饭,但同时也可能造成盐和脂肪摄入量超标,尤其不适合肥胖和高血压人群食用,对于健康人来说,也应减少吃此类盖浇饭的次数。
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本帖最后编辑时间发表于 2014/11/6 17:22:57